08222017Headline:

Relationship Between Work Family Conflict And Culture Psychology Essay

Chapter 5 This chapter consists of the summary, conclusion of the research findings, implications, limitations and recommendation for future research.

Summary The study aimed to examine the relationship between work-family conflict, work-family culture and job satisfaction amongst private sector employees in Seremban, Negeri Sembilan. Three hundreds respondents were recruited in the study. The respondents were selected by using convenience sampling method due to the exact number of private sector employees were unknown. Three instruments were used in this study include Work-family Conflict Scale (Carlson, 2000), Work-family Culture Scale (Thompson et al, 1999), and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Weiss et al, 1997). All the objectives mentioned were examined.

Objectives 1: To describe the employee’s backgrounds (gender, age, race, marital status, number of child, years of education, job tenure, job level, working hours and salary).

In order to understand the respondents recruited, some demographic data were collected and analyzed. The study revealed that majority (73.7%) of the respondents was below 30 years old and more than half (55.7%) of them were Chinese. In this study, the number of male respondents (48.0%) and female respondents (52.0%) were almost the same. There are 196 respondents (65.3%) were single, and 72% of the respondents do not have any child. In the aspect of education, most (74.7%) of the respondents have studied more than 12 years.

There are 52.3% of the respondents work in executive level such as senior manager, manager, senior executive, junior executive and fresh entry), the remaining respondents (47.7%) were work in non-executive level. About 44.0% of the respondents unveiled that their working hours per day was between 9 to 12 hours followed by 12 hours and above (35.0%). Majority of the respondents (34.0%) earn more than RM 2501 per month. About 71.3% of the respondents work for the same job level for 3 years and below.

Objectives 2: To measure work-family conflict, work-family culture and job satisfaction among the private sectors’ employees

In the study, respondents were required to complete the questionnaire which includes the three instruments such as Work-family Conflict Scale (Carlson, 2000), Work-family Culture Scale (Thompson et al, 1999), and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Weiss et al, 1997).Result revealed that most (53.7%) of the respondents have higher level of work-family conflict which scored between 55 to 90 in Carlson’s Work-family Conflict Scale (2000). This indicated that employee’s work responsibility was incompatible with his or her family responsibility or vise versa. The mean and standard deviation for work-family conflict were 56.34 and 12.21 respectively.

To identify the work-family culture that the respondents undergo within the organization, Work-family Culture Scale (Thompson et al, 1999) was used and measured. Result showed that more than half (64.3%) of the respondents perceived a supportive work-family culture in their organization as they scored above 80. In other words, majority of the respondents perceived that their organization is providing sufficient managerial supports for family life to employees (mean =86.01; Sd= 14.03). Besides, employees also perceived fewer career consequences of devoting tome to family and fewer organizational demands in their organization.

Employee’s job satisfaction was measured by summing up the total scores of all items in Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Weiss et al, 1997). Results revealed that a large portion (77.3%) of respondents were found to have higher level of job satisfaction (mean = 69.71; Sd = 13.06). Most of their scores were ranged from 61 to 100. In simple words, majority of the respondents were satisfied with their current job.

Objective 3: To determine the relationship between work-family culture and work-family conflict.

In this study, relationship between work-family culture and work-family conflict was examined. To determine its relationship, Pearson Correlation analysis was used. Result showed that work-family culture was significantly negative related to work-family conflict (r = -0.168, p<0.01). The relationship between work-family culture and work-family conflict was very weak as the r-value was 0.168. The negative sign of the r-value indicated that a supportive work-family conflict allows employees to enjoy the lower level of work-family conflict while unsupportive work-family culture would cause employees to experience higher level of work-family conflict.

Objective 4: To determine the relationship between work-family conflict and job satisfaction.

Referring to the objective mentioned above, Pearson Correlation was used in this study. Result unveiled that work-family conflict was significantly negative related with job satisfaction (r= -.0.245, p<0.001). The correlation between work-family conflict and job satisfaction was considered weak as r-value was 0.245. In other words, the greater work-family conflict an employee experienced, the lower level of job satisfaction would be reported. As greater work-family conflict could diminish one’s ability in fulfilling demands in job, hence employee may less satisfy with his or her current job.

Objective 5: To determine the relationship between work-family culture and job satisfaction.

In the objective above, the relationship between work-family culture and job satisfaction were examined. Pearson Correlation analysis was used in order to fulfilling the objective above. Result showed that work-family culture was significantly positive related with job satisfaction ( r = 0.331, p< 0.001). In fact, the relationship between work-family culture and job satisfaction was weak as r-value was 0.331. This means that more supportive work-family culture could lead to a higher level of job satisfaction. The perceived unsupportive work-family culture would diminish one’s job satisfaction level. As employees perceived that their organization does not support family life of employees, they are more likely to have lower level of job satisfaction.

Objective 6: To determine unique predictors of work-family conflict, work-family culture and job satisfaction

In this study, the unique predictors of work-family conflict, work-family culture and job satisfaction determined by using Multiple Linear Regression. First, all the variables under respondent’s background and work-family culture were entered simultaneously into Multiple Linear Regression analyses as predictor variables for dependent variable of work-family conflict. Findings revealed that marital status (Beta =0.186, p<0.05), number of child (Beta = 0.181, p<0.05), working hours per day (Beta = -0.139, p<0.05) and work-family culture (Beta = -0.183, p<0.001) were found to be statistically predictors of work-family conflict. In brief, the findings explained that employees who are married or have greater number of child are more likely to experience higher level of work-family conflict. Besides, employees who work fewer hours per day and perceived family-friendly supports from organization are less to be exposed to work-family conflict. Together the variables accounted for 19.9% of the variance in the work-family conflict (F= 7.118, p<0.001).

To determine the predictors of work-family culture, all variables under respondent’s background and work-family conflict were entered simultaneously into Multiple Linear Regression analyses as predictor variables for dependents variable of work-family culture. The result unveiled that working hours per day (Beta = -0.220, p<0.001) and work-family conflict (Beta = -0.204, p<0.001) are statistically predictors of dependents variable of work-family culture. This results explained that employees who work fewer hours per day or experienced less work-family conflict are tend to perceived the work-family culture as supportive. These variables accounted for 10.5% variance in the work-family culture (F=2.591, p<0.01).

All the variables under respondent’s background, work-family conflict, and work-family culture were entered simultaneously into Multiple Linear Regression analyses as predictor variables for dependent variable job satisfaction. Results revealed that number of child (Beta= -0.207, p<0.05), job tenure (Beta= 0.198, p<0.05), work-family culture (Beta= 0.310, p<0.001) and work family conflict (Beta= -0.174, p<.01) were significant predictors of job satisfaction. The study found that positive linear relationships existed between job tenure and job satisfaction as well as work-family culture and job satisfaction. This explained that employees who work longer for same job level are more satisfied with their job. Similarly, employees who perceived a supportive work-family culture in their organization are more satisfied towards their job. However, the negative linear relationships were found to be exited between number of child and job satisfaction as well as work-family conflict and job satisfaction. In simple, employees who have more children are less satisfied with their job. Furthermore, employees who experienced higher level of work-family conflict are also less satisfied with their job. Together the variance accounted for 20.6 % of the variance in job satisfaction (F = 5.211, p<0.001).

Conclusion The present study concluded that most of the respondents had high work-family conflict and perceived supportive work-family culture in their organization. Furthermore, study also concluded that majority of the respondents involved were satisfied with their current job. As mentioned earlier, this study was primarily designed to examine the relationship between work-family culture, work-family conflict and job satisfaction amongst private sector employees in Seremban. A Significant correlation was found between work-family culture, work-family conflict and job satisfaction in the present study. Although the relationship existed between these variables were weak, it was statistically significant. The present study found that the relationship between work-family conflict and work-family culture was relatively weaker than the relationship between work-family conflict and job satisfaction as well as the relationship between work-family culture and job satisfaction.

Apart from that, the study also determined factors that are predictive for work-family conflict, work-family culture and job satisfaction. The present study concluded that marital statuses, number of child, working hours per day and work-family culture are the predictors of work-family conflict. Among these predictors, marital status has the strongest effects on work-family conflict. In other words, married respondents have significantly higher work-family conflict if compare to non-married group. On the other hand, working hours per day and work-family conflict are concluded as the predictors of work-family culture. In simpler words, changes in these two predictors could affect work-family culture in certain ways depends on its beta coefficient in showed regression analysis. Both working hours per day and work-family conflict have effects on work-family culture yet working hours per day was the most influential to work-family culture among the factors included in the analysis.

Last but not least, the present study concluded that number of child, job tenure, work-family culture and work-family conflict are the predictors of job satisfaction. Changes in any one of it could give certain effect on job satisfaction. The most influential predictor was work-family culture if compare to other predictors. In a nutshell, the study was successfully determined the relationships between work-family culture, work-family conflict and job satisfaction. In addition, study was also successfully determined the predictors that influence the work-family culture, work-family conflict and job satisfaction.

Implication In fact, local studies which focusing on the relationship between work-family conflict, work-family culture and job satisfaction among private sector employees in Malaysia is relatively rare. Therefore, this study provides valuable empirical evidence on the relationship between work-family conflict, work-family culture and job satisfaction. This add merits to further work-family related studies in Malaysian context as this study pioneered to fulfill the literature gap that noted in Chapter 1 and 2. Therefore, researchers can obtain new knowledge from the present study as one of their references in future.

Findings of this study showed positive relationship between work-family culture and job satisfaction and negative relationship between work-family conflict and job satisfaction. Also, there was a negative relationship between work-family culture and work-family conflict but the relationship was very weak. This findings have demonstrated that the importance of work-family culture in an organization to maintain or enhance employees’ job satisfaction and the influences of work-family conflict on job satisfaction. This study provides a baseline understanding to organizations on employees’ job satisfaction. Once an understanding of the employee’s job satisfaction has been established, organizations could strategically to create a policy to develop a suitable culture, reduce employee’s work-family conflict and enhance their job satisfaction as well.

Moreover, this study also provides fundamental knowledge to employees regarding the natural interaction between work and family domains. As findings have showed factors affecting the work-family conflict, work-family culture and job satisfaction (i.e. working hours per day, job tenure and etc), thereby employees could strategically manage the factors in order to reduce work-family conflict and increase their job satisfaction. By this way, employees could reach a balance between work and family life.

Recommendation for Future Research The present study was primarily to examine the key variables (work-family conflict, work-family culture and job satisfaction) and its correlations between the key variables. Targeted respondents were come from private sectors companies. However, the present study does not cover all the private sectors companies in Seremban. Thus, further research should cover more areas instead of focus on solely area (Seremban). This generalization could be improved as larger sample size has smaller error existed therefore better representativeness of sample.

Homogeneous of respondent’s background should be emphasized in future studies. In other words, respondents who can participate in study must have similar background characteristic such as marital status, race, job level and so on. As differences in each of the variables would affect the accuracy of the results, thus researchers should specify respondent’s background characteristic in order to homogenize the sample of the study. Instrumentation is one of the elements that further research should take an attention. Instruments which are less wordy and easy to understand are highly desired. As wordy instruments would make respondents feel boring and tend to respond it insincerely.

Last but not least, further research should consider other factors affecting the interest variables (work-family conflict, work-family culture and job satisfaction). In reality, there are many factors that affect an individual and each of the factors exerts certain level of influence to each other. Therefore, in order to make the study more realistic and representative to current worlds, researchers should consider any potency variables that surrounded the respondents.

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